Diabetic mellitus, is the inability of the body to use and store sugar properly, resulting in high blood sugar levels. This results in changes in veins, arteries and capillaries throughout the body.
Diabetic retinopathy is caused by damage to blood vessels of the retina. The retina is the layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye. It changes light and images that enter the eye into nerve signals that are sent to the brain. Damage to the blood vessels of retina results in irreversible loss of vision. Fluctuation in sugar level has a great impact in affecting the blood vessels of the eye.
Diabetic patients are also at the risk of developing,
- Family history.
- Preterm babies.
- People with high minus power.
- Birth defects in the retina.
- Patients with holes/tears in the retina.
- Any eye injury.
- Tumours in the inner layer of the eye.
- It can occur following any inflammation or infection in the eye.
- Sudden loss of vision.
- Appearance of flashes/ floaters in front of the eye.
- Sudden appearance of numerous black spots.
- Ophthalmoscopy (Indirect with +20D lens) which is helpful in diagnosing retinal holes and tears.
- Ultrasound both ‘A’ and ‘B’ scan.
- Small tears and holes can be sealed using Cryotheraphy where cold laser seals the margins of the holes/tears in order to prevent further damage.
- Laser photocoagulation.
- To drain the fuild accumulated behind the retina (sub retinal fluid).
- Scleral buckling and Vitrectomy to reattach the detached retina. In this they will take out the fluid in the back of the eye(vitreous humour) and then reattach the retina. Generally gas/ silicon oil is used temporarily to support the reattached retina.
- Aurolab manufactures Aurooctane and Aurosil for retinal surgeries.