A condition in which pressure inside the eye IOP(Intra ocular pressure) is so high that it causes damage to the retinal nerve fibers. This IOP is maintained by a fluid circulating in the eye called the Aqueous humour, when the circulation gets blocked, fluid starts accumulating in the eye. As the fluid builds up it begins to exert pressure inside the eye and damages the eye structures.
In the beginning stage glaucoma starts affecting the peripheral field of vision. “Without treatment, glaucoma can cause total, permanent blindness within a few years.”
Who are at risk for glaucoma?
- Persons who has family history of glaucoma especially in their first degree relatives.
- Myopes and hypermetropes.
- Diabetic and hypertensive patients.
- Previous eye injury.
- Elevated eye pressure.
Types of Glaucoma:
There are two main types of glaucoma,
- Open- angle glaucoma: the most common form of glaucoma.
- Closed- angle glaucoma: a less common and more urgent form in the treatment point of view.
Open- angle glaucoma:
It has no symptoms in its initial stage, the vision remains normal without any pain but when it left untreated, people will slowly starts losing their peripheral vision. Over a period of time, central vision may also decrease, resulting in total visual loss.
Closed- angle glaucoma/ Angle closure glaucoma:
It is an acute onset glaucoma with sudden increase in the eye pressure with pain in the affected eye, headache and vomiting. This kind of glaucoma requires immediate treatment.
General symptoms of glaucoma:
If you have any combination of the following symptoms, contact your physician immediately:
- Seeing halos around lights.
- Narrowing of vision (tunnel vision).
- Vision loss.
- Redness in the eye.
- Eyes that look hazy.
- Nausea or vomiting.
- Pain in the eye.
Some common diagnostic tests for Glaucoma:
Tonometry – to check the IOP
Visual field testing – to measure the amount of peripheral vision loss
Gonioscopy – to visualize the angle of the eye.
Ophthalmoscopy – to examine the inner part of the eye(retina, optic disk, etc.,)
Treatment for Glaucoma:
Treatment for glaucoma depends on
- Specific type of glaucoma.
- Severity of glaucoma.
- How glaucoma response to treatment.
- Eye drops “Aurolab manufactures eye drops for the treatment of glaucoma”.
- Laser treatment like Nd- YAG laser Iridotomy and Trabeculoplasty.